Chapter on Innovations, Personal Opinions and Analogies
H 156, Ch. 19, h 1
Al-Husayn ibn Muhammad al-Ash’ari has narrated from Mu‘alla ibn Muhammad from al-Hassan ibn Ali al-Washsha’ and a number of our people from Ahmad ibn Muhammad from ibn Faddal all from ‘Asim ibn Hamid from Muhammad ibn Muslim from abu Ja‘far (a.s.) who has said the following.
“Imam Ali said in one of his sermons to people, ‘O people, mischief begins with following certain desires and obeying certain invented rules that are different from the rules and laws of the book of Allah. In such case people yield to other people as high authority if falsehood would have been clear they would have no fear for the people of Intelligence. If truth would have been clearly distinct there would have been no differences. But (practical life) people mix certain parts of truth and with a few things from falsehood and present them together and in such Satan overwhelms his friends and only those who has previously received protection from Allah remain safe.’”
H 157, Ch. 19, h 2
Al-Husayn ibn Muhammad has narrated from Mu‘alla ibn Muhammad from Muhammad ibn Jumhur al-‘Ammi in a marfu‘ manner (rafa ‘ahu), from the Messenger of Allah who has said the following.
“When innovations emerge it will be obligatory for the scholars to make their knowledge public, otherwise, Allah will condemn them.”
H 158, Ch. 19, h 3
It is narrated through the same chain of narrators from Muhammad ibn Jumhur in a marfu’ manner from the Messenger of Allah who has said the following.
“If one would meet an innovator and considers him great such person has, in fact, the destruction of Islam.”
H 159, Ch. 19, h 4
It is narrated through the same chain of narrators from Muhammad ibn Jumhur in a marfu’ manner from the Messenger of Allah who has said the following.
“Allah has rejected repentance of an innovator (in religion).” People asked the holy Prophet as to why is this. The holy Prophet replied, “He (Allah) has quenched his heart with the love of his innovation.”
H 160, Ch. 19, h 5
Muhammad ibn Yahya has narrated from Ahmad ibn Muhammad ibn ‘Isa from al-Hassan ibn Mahbub from Mu‘awiya ibn Wahab who has said the following.
“Abu ‘Abdallah (a.s.) said that the holy Prophet has said, ‘It is certain that against every innovation with plots to destroy faith there will be an (religious) authority from my family as guardian of faith and as its defender. (Such) authority will speak on inspiration from Allah to declare the truth and bring it to light, repulse and foil the evil plots of the agents of wickedness and speak for the weak. O people of Intelligence, take a lesson from it and trust Allah.’”
H 161, Ch. 19, h 6
Muhammad ibn Yahya has narrated from certain persons of his people and Ali ibn Ibrahim from his father from Harun ibn Muslim from Mas‘ada ibn Sadaqa from abu ‘Abdallah (a.s.) and Ali ibn Ibrahim from his father from ibn Mahbub in a marfu’ manner from Amir al-Mu’minin Ali (a.s.) who has said the following.
“Of the most intensely disliked men before Allah, the Majestic, the Most Glorious, are two kinds of people: A man whom Allah has left all to his own soul and he deviates from the path of justice and is intensely attracted towards the words innovation. He seems a master in performing prayer and fasting but is a mischief to deceive people; he has strayed from guidance of the people before him and misleads those who may follow him in his lifetime and after his death. He carries the responsibility for others sins and is the hostage of his own sins.
The other man is one who collects ignorance among the ignorant, himself a captive of darkness of the mischievous. The, humanoids, people who look like people, consider him a scholar but he has not been even for a complete day with scholars. He has made an early effort to accumulate some thing that its being of a smaller quantity is better than in larger quantities and in this way he has quenched himself with polluted water and has treasured what is of no use. He sits among the people as a judge to carry the responsibility of what is confusing and uncertain to others. He may even oppose the ruling of the judge before him. One can never tell whether his judgment will remain valid or a judge after him will over turn it just as he has done to the judgments of the judges before him. If he would face one of the complex and difficult issues he comes up with a heap of his personal opinions and then he shapes it up as a clear-cut judgment. In fact, he has dressed himself up with doubtful issue the way a spider waves his fragile web. He is not sure if he has done the right thing or the wrong one. He does not consider the fact that in an unknown case to have proper knowledge is necessary and does not see that beyond his opinion there is a school of law. He analogies one thing to the other but it does not matter to him if his opinion will turn out to be a lie. If an issue is dark (not known) to him he hides it to hide his own ignorance so that people will not say he does not know. He then boldly judges and thus he is the key to hazards, a rider of doubts, perplexed in ignorance and never regrets his lacking knowledge. The level of his knowledge never rises to clear-cut certainty so that he would benefit. He blows out Hadith like winds that blow away hay. The legacies weep from him, the bloods (judging the case of murder) shout against him. The lawful marital relations become unlawful because of his judgment and unlawful ones become lawful. He has no confidence in the judgments issues he can never be trusted for his judgments that he may make nor was he qualified for what he may have done in the matters that he claimed to have true knowledge.”
H 162, Ch. 19, h 8
Al-Husayn ibn Muhammad has narrated from Mu‘alla ibn Muhammad from al-Hassan ibn Ali al-Washsha’ from Aban ibn ‘Uthman from abu Shaybah al-Khurasani who has said the following.
“Abu ‘Abdallah (a.s.) has said, ‘The people of analogy have sought knowledge through analogy and it has increased to their knowledge nothing but further remoteness. The religion of Allah is beyond the reach of analogy.’”
H 163, Ch. 19, h 9
Ali ibn Ibrahim has narrated from his father from Muhammad ibn ’Isma‘il from al-Fadl ibn Shadhan in a marfu‘ manner (rafa’ahu) from abu Ja’far and abu ‘Abdallah (a.s.) who have said the following.
“All innovations are misguidance and all misguidance leads to Hell.”
H 164, Ch. 19, h 10
Ali ibn Ibrahim has narrated from his father from ibn abu ‘Umayr from Muhammad ibn Hukaym who has said the following.
“I asked (Imam) abul Hassan Musa (a.s.), ‘May Allah take my soul in your service, “Please make us Faqih, people of proper understanding in religion. Allah has granted us the blessing of your existence among us and has made us independent of other people. This blessing is so great that even if a whole group of us would come to one place no one would need to ask an other come up with a question so that the other would prepare and answer for it. Sometimes we come across an issue for which we have heard nothing from you or from your forefathers. We than look into the best of the resources with us and the closest that we have with us from you can we take such a finding as an authority? “Never, never, by Allah O ibn Hakim many people have been destroyed in it” Reply from the Imam (a.s.). Ibn Hakim has said that the Imam then said, “May Allah. Abu Hanifah who used to say, “Ali said so and so, therefore, I said so and so.” Muhammad ibn Hakim has said that he told Hisham ibn al-Hakam, “By Allah, I only wanted the Imam to give us permission to use analogy.’”
H 165, Ch. 19, h 10
Muhammad ibn abu ‘Abdallah has narrated in a marfu’ manner from Yunus ibn ‘Abd al-Rahman who has said the following.
“I asked (Imam) abu al-Hassan the First, ‘How would I prove that Allah is one?’” The Imam replied, “O Yunus, do not be an innovator. One who depends on his personal opinion he is destroyed. One who abandons the members of the family of his prophet, goes stray. Whoever abandons the book of Allah and the words of His prophet he becomes an unbeliever.”
H 166, Ch. 19, h 11
Muhammad ibn Yahya has narrated from Ahmad ibn Muhammad from al-Washsha’ from Muthanna al-Hannat from abu Basir who has said the following.
“I asked (Imam) abu ‘Abdallah (a.s.) saying, ‘We face such issue about which there is nothing said in the book of Allah or in the Sunnah, tradition of the holy Prophet (s.a.). Can use our own opinion in such matters?’” The Imam replied, “No, you must not do so. If you would find the truth you will receive no rewards for it an if missed the truth you have forged lies against Allah, the Majestic, the Glorious.”
H 167, Ch. 19, h 12
A number of our people has narrated from Ahmad ibn Muhammad ibn ‘Isa from Ali ibn al-Hakam from ‘Umar ibn Aban al-Kalbi from ‘Abd al-Rahman al-Qasir from abu ‘Abdallah (a.s.) who has said the following.
“The Holy Prophet said, ‘All innovations are misguidance and all misguidance is Hell.’”
H 168, Ch. 19, h 13
Ali ibn Ibrahim has narrated from Muhammad ibn ‘Isa ibn ‘Ubayd from Yunus ibn ‘Abd al-Rahman from Sum‘a ibn Mihran who has said the following.
“I said to (Imam) abu al-Hassan (a.s.), ‘May Allah keep you well, in our meetings we discuss the issues and find out that for almost every thing there is something in writing with us and that is all because of the blessings of your existence among us. We only find few small things for which we do not find any thing in writing we look on each other and we find certain issues similar to it then we use analogy in its best form.” The Imam said, “What do you have to do with analogy? Many people before have been destroyed because of analogy.” The Imam then said, “When you face an issue and know he rule about it deal with accordingly and if you would have no knowledge about its rule then this. He pointed to his own mouth, meaning thereby; this will give you the answer.” The Imam then said, “May Allah…? Abu Hanifah who used to say, “Ali said so and so, therefore, I said so and so. The Sahabah said so and so, therefore, I said so and so.” The Imam then asked me, “Have you been sitting with him?” I then relied, “No, I have not sat with him but such are his statements.” I then said to the Imam (a.s.). “May Allah keep you well, did the holy Prophet bring in his everything that people needed?” The Imam said, “Yes, and all that they will need up to the Day of Judgment.” I then said, “Is any thing lost from it?” The Imam replied, “No, it all is with the people to who they belong.’”
H 169, Ch. 19, h 14
It is narrated from him from Muhammad from Yunus from Aban from abu Shaybah who has said the following.
“I heard (Imam) abu ‘Abdallah (a.s.) saying, ‘Ibn Shabrama’s knowledge is lost and void before al-Jami‘ah. It is a large book that was dictated by the holy Prophet to Imam Ali (a.s.), who wrote it with his own hands. Al-Jami‘ah has left nothing for any one to say. In it is the knowledge of all lawful and unlawful matters. The people of analogy sought knowledge through analogy and it increased to their knowledge but taking them away from knowledge. The religion of Allah is not of matters to learn through analogy.”
H 170, Ch. 19, h 15
Muhammad ibn ’Isma‘il has narrated from al-Fadl ibn Shadhan from Safwan Yahya from ‘Abd al-Rahman ibn al-Hajjaj from Aban ibn Taghlib from abu ‘Abdallah (a.s.) who has said the following.
“The Sunnah, tradition of the holy Prophet (s.a.) can not be leaned through analogy. Consider a woman has to make up for her fast missed due to menses but she does not have to make up for the prayers that she would miss in such times. O Aban, the use of analogy destroys religion.”
H 171, Ch. 19, h 16
A number of our people has narrated from Ahmad ibn Muhammad from ‘Uthman ibn ‘Isa who has said the following.
“I asked (Imam) abu al-Hassan Musa (a.s.) about the use of analogy and the Imam said, ‘What do you have to do with analogy? Allah will not ask how it was made lawful or unlawful.’”
H 172, Ch. 19, h 17
Ali ibn Ibrahim has narrated from Harun ibn Muslim from Mas‘ada ibn Sadaqa who has said the following.
“(Imam) abu ‘Abdallah (a.s.) who narrated from his father who said that Imam Ali (a.s.) said, ‘Whoever sets out for analogy his whole life will get in confusion. Whoever would practice the religion of Allah by means of analogy his whole life will pass in a drowning condition.’” Imam abu Ja‘far (a.s.) then said, “Whoever gives Fatwa on the basis of his personal opinion he has practiced the religion of Allah by means of what is not knowledge. Whoever would practice the religion of Allah without knowledge he has opposed Him by making things as lawful and unlawful by means of what he has no knowledge of.”
H 173, Ch. 19, h 18
Muhammad ibn Yahya has narrated from Ahmad ibn Muhammad from al-Hassan ibn Ali ibn Yaqtin from al-Husayn ibn Mayyah from his father from abu ’Abdullah (a.s.) who has said the following.
“Satan analogized himself with Adam saying, “Lord, You have created me from fire and created him from clay. In an analogical explanation if the substance from which Adam was made would be compared with fire it would come to light that it has more light and value than fire.”
H 174, Ch. 19, h 19
Ali ibn Ibrahim has narrated from Muhammad ibn ‘Isa ibn ‘Ubayd from Yunus from Hariz from Zurara who has said the following.
“I asked Imam abu ‘Abdallah (a.s.) about lawful and u matters who has said, “Whatever Prophet (s.a.) has made lawful will remain lawful forever up to the Day of Judgment and whatever he has made unlawful will remain unlawful forever up to the Day of Judgment. There will be no one other than him and there will come no one other than him. He said that Imam Ali has said, ‘No one has established any innovations without abandoning an established noble tradition.”
H 175, Ch. 19, h 20
Ali ibn Ibrahim has narrated from his father from Ahmad ibn ‘Abdallah al-‘Aqili from ‘Isa ibn ‘Abdallah al-Qurashi who has said the following.
“Once abu Hanifah came to see Imam abu ‘Abdallah (a.s.) who said to abu Hanifah, “O abu Hanifah, do you practice analogy as I hear you do?”
Abu Hanifah replied, “Yes, I do practice analogy.” The Imam then said to him, “Do not practice it because the first person who used analogy was Satan when he said, “Lord, you have created me from fire and created him from clay.” He analogized fire with clay. If he would have analogized the light in the clay and fire he would have learned about the difference between the two lights and the excellence of one over the other.”
H 176, Ch. 19, h 21
Ali has narrated from Muhammad ibn ‘Isa from Yunus from Qutayba who has said the following.
“A man asked Imam abu ‘Abdallah (a.s.) about an issue and the Imam replied him. The man then said, “Have you considered if it had been so and so it would have been the word in it.” The Imam then said, “Wait, whatever I said in answer was from the holy Prophet (s.a.). We are not of the people, “Have you considered” in anything.” ( The Imam that they did not need reasoning process and that all they said had come to them from the holy Prophet (s.a.)
H 177, Ch. 19, h 22
A number of our people has narrated from Ahmad ibn Muhammad ibn Khalid from his father in mursal manner (Mursalan) from abu Ja‘far (a.s.) who has said the following.
“Do not take anyone closely and intimately between your selves and Allah lest you will not be believers. Every means, ancestral and relative relations and intimacy, innovations and doubts will be cut off except for what is established in the holy Quran.”